Both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are substantially increased in people with Type 2 diabetes compared with nondiabetics, UK researchers have shown.
They also demonstrate that duration of diabetes is an independent predictor for mortality risk and that younger women with the disease are at disproportionately increased risk for cardiovascular mortality.
Josie Evans (University of Stirling) and colleagues used record-linkage databases to identify 10,532 patients diagnosed with diabetes between 1993 and 2004. They also identified a control cohort of 21,056 nondiabetic individuals from general practice.
All patients were followed-up for a maximum of 12 years for mortality. During this time, 17.7% of diabetes patients and 14.1% of controls died. The main causes of death were diseases of the circulatory system (44.9% and 39.3%) and neoplasms (25.3% and 27.7%) for diabetic and nondiabetic participants, respectively.
The researchers calculated absolute mortality rates for subgroups of participants stratified by gender and age decile.
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Interestingly, the difference in absolute rates of all-cause mortality appeared to widen slightly among females and narrow slightly among males with increasing age. Also, widening of the absolute rates of cardiovascular mortality between diabetic and nondiabetic participants appeared to occur slightly earlier among women than men.
Further analyses revealed that the risk for all-cause mortality increased with increasing duration of diabetes, reaching a peak between 6 and 9 years, then decreased. This pattern was even more marked for cardiovascular mortality but peaked slightly earlier.
Writing in the journal Diabetic Medicine, Evans et al remark: “This study further supports the literature showing that Type 2 diabetes reduces life expectancy.”